Fair elections are an essential part of a working democracy. It's important to know the English words relating to elections when you read or hear the English-language news about an election. The recent US presidential election has been in the media a lot this month, and you may have heard many of the following words in news reports.
The verb "to vote" means "to choose" the person you are voting for:
We try really hard to persuade people that we're right, and then people vote.
Captions 47-49, Barack Obama: on Trump presidential victoryPlay Caption
There is also the noun "vote," and a synonym for a vote is a ballot. A ballot is also the actual paper that you use to write your vote on.
The place you go to vote is called a "poll":
When it comes to election day, the public go to the polls to vote for one presidential ticket.
Caption 66, US Elections How do they work?Play Caption
But a "poll" is also a survey that asks people who they intend to vote for:
That supports Jeb Bush, who has been struggling in some polls.
Caption 19, ABC News: The Broncos Win Super Bowl 50Play Caption
The person who is running for political office is a candidate:
So the candidate with the most votes wins.
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Candidates often confront each other before the election in a debate:
Remember, he was just on the stage with Joe Biden at that debate.Play Caption
If somebody has "been elected," it means that they got the most votes and won the election:
Senators, like members of the House of Representatives, are also elected to their seats by the public.
Captions 42-43, US Elections: How do they work?Play Caption
When a candidate for US President has won the election in November, he does not take office until the 20th of January the following year. In the two and a half months before he takes office, he is called the "President-elect." After the 20th of January, he is called the "President" and the person who left office is called the "former President."
So I have instructed my team to follow the example that President Bush's team set eight years ago and work as hard as we can to make sure that this is a successful transition for the President-elect.
Captions 25-28, Barack Obama: on Trump presidential victoryPlay Caption