English Lessons

Topics

Nouns (los sustantivos): la formación del plural

El sustantivo es una categoría gramatical que sirve para dar nombre (nombrar) a todo tipo de sujeto: personas, seres vivos, cosas o conceptos abstractos. La formación plural de un sustantivo es diferente en cada idioma.

 

En inglés, la mayoría de los sustantivos forman el plural agregando una “-s” al final de la palabra:

 

pen: pens (bolígrafos)

spoon: spoons (cucharas)

table: tables (mesas)

letter: letters (cartas)

window: windows (ventanas)

 

Los sustantivos terminados en “-tch”, “-ch”, “-s”, “-ss”, o “-x” forman el plural agregando el sufijo “-es”:

 

tax: taxes (impuestos)

match: matches (partidos)

bus: buses (autobuses)

business: businesses (negocios)

sandwich: sandwiches (emparedados)

 

Algunos sustantivos terminados con “-f” forman el plural perdiendo la “f” y añadiendo el sufijo “-ves”:

 

shelf: shelves (repisas)

knife: knives (cuchillos)

self: selves (mismos)

thief: thieves (ladrones)

 

I have one scarf around my neck and two scarves in my hands.

Tengo una bufanda alrededor del cuello y dos bufandas

Subtítulo 20, The Alphabet - the Letter F

 Play Caption

 

Algunos sustantivos terminan con “-y” seguida de una consonate. Para formar el plural en este caso, se cambia “-y” por “-ies”:

 

baby: babies (bebés)

university: universities (universidades)

sky: skies (cielos)

 

Bear cubs love to snuggle just like human babies.

A los oseznos les encanta acurrucarse tal como a los bebés.

Subtítulo 37, Nature & Wildlife - Search for the Ghost Bear

 Play Caption

 

And we will transform our schools and colleges and universities

Y transformaremos nuestras escuelas y nuestras universidades

to meet the demands of a new age.

para alcanzar las exigencias de una nueva era.

Subtítulo  37-38, Barack Obama's Inauguration Day - Obama's Speech

 Play Caption

 

Sin embargo, cuando “-y” es precedida por otra vocal, entonces el plural se forma agregando la terminación “-s”:

 

boy: boys (muchachos)

monkey: monkeys (monos)

 

Los sustantivos terminados en “o" se consideran irregulares, ya que algunos toman la terminación “-s”, mientras que otros “-es”:

 

photo: photos (fotos)

hero: heroes (héroes)

 

How can Zero be a hero?

¿Cómo puedes er un héroe?

Well, there are all kinds of heroes you know.

Bueno, hay muchos tipos de héroes, ya sabes.

Subtítulos 4-5, Schoolhouse Rock - My Hero, Zero

 Play Caption

 

En algunos casos, ambas terminaciones se consideran correctas:

 

fresco: frescos, frescoes (frescos)

zero: zeros, zeroes (ceros)

 

Hay otras maneras de hacer el plural de un sustantivo, pero las veremos en la próxima lección. ¿Eres capaz de formar el plural de las siguientes palabras?

 

a key (una llave) - two ________

a hobby (una afición) - two_________

a wolf (un lobo) - two_________

a cable (un cable)  - two___________

a cup (una taza) - two __________

a batch (un lote) - two________

 

Esperamos que hayas disfrutado de esta lección.  

Te esperamos con mucho más en Yabla.

(Versión en español: Antonio Fuentes)

 

Il plurale dei sostantivi - Part I

In grammatica e in linguistica, il sostantivo è la parte di un discorso che indica una singola persona, un singolo animale o una singola cosa, o una classe di persone, animali o cose. La formazione del plurale di un sostantivo è diversa in ogni lingua.
 

BANNER PLACEHOLDER

In inglese la maggior parte dei sostantivi forma il plurale aggiungendo una -s alla fine della parola:

pen: pens (penne)
spoon: spoons (cucchiai)
table: tables (tavoli)
letter: letters (lettere)
window: windows (finestre)

 

I sostantivi che terminano in tchchs (o ss), o x formano il plurale aggiungendo il suffisso –es:
 

tax: taxes (tasse)
match: matches (partite)
bus: buses (autobus)
business: businesses (imprese)
sandwich: sandwiches (panini) 

 

Alcuni sostantivi che terminano con formano il plurale perdendo la  e aggiungendo il suffisso -ves:
 

shelf: shelves (scaffali)
knife: knives (coltelli)
self: selves (stessi - sé stessi)
thief: thieves (ladri)

 

I have one scarf around my neck and two scarves in my hands.

Ho una sciarpa attorno al mio collo e due sciarpe nelle mie mani.

Caption 20, The Alphabet - the Letter F

 Play Caption

 

Alcuni sostantivi che terminano con una consonante seguita da formano il plurale perdendo la y e aggiungendo –ies:

 

baby: babies (bebè, bambini piccoli)
university: universities (università)
sky: skies (cieli)

 

Bear cubs love to snuggle just like human babies.

I cuccioli di orso adorano coccolarsi proprio come i bambini piccoli

Caption 37, Nature & Wildlife - Search for the Ghost Bear - Part 2

 Play Caption

 

And we will transform our schools and colleges and universities to meet the demands of a new age.

E trasformeremo le nostre scuole, i [nostri] licei e università per andare incontro alle richieste di una nuova era.

Captions 37-38, Barack Obama's Inauguration Day - Obama's Speech - Part 2

 Play Caption

 

Ma quando la y è preceduta da un’altra vocale, allora il plurale si forma aggiungendo la –s:

boy: boys (ragazzi)
monkey: monkeys (scimmie)

 

I sostantivi che terminano in “o” sono irregolari. Alcuni prendono la -s, altri il suffisso -es.

photo: photos (foto)
hero: heroes (eroi)

 

How can Zero be a hero?

Come può Zero essere un eroe?

Well, there are all kinds of heroes you know.

Be', ci sono molti tipi di eroi, sai.

Captions 4-5, Schoolhouse Rock - My Hero, Zero

 Play Caption

 

In alcuni casi entrambe le desinenze possono andar bene:

fresco: frescos, frescoes (affreschi)
zero: zeros, zeroes (zeri)

 

Ci sono altri modi per fare il plurale di un sostantivo, ma li vedremo nella prossima lezione.
Sei in grado di formare il plurale delle seguenti parole?

a key (una chiave) - two ________
a hobby (un hobby) - two_________
a wolf (un lupo) - two_________
a cable (un cavo)  - two___________
a cup (una tazza) - two __________
a batch (una partita) - two________

BANNER PLACEHOLDER

P.S. Already know some English? English lessons in English may be found here.

Grammatica

There, They're, or Their?

Homonyms are words that sound the same, but are spelled differently and have different meanings and usages. This can be confusing sometimes as one must rely on context to figure out which word is meant or should be used. 

BANNER PLACEHOLDER

Even native speakers sometimes fail to use the homonyms "there," "their," and "they're" correctly. Here is a quick review of which one is appropriate for which occasion. 

 

1) The word "there" is used to refer to a physical or abstract location.

 

When I flew in on the float plane, they were all there on the boat.

When I flew in on the float plane, they were all there on the boat.

Caption 4, Alaska Revealed - Endless Wave

 Play Caption

 

Also, it is commonly combined with a conjugation of “to be” or a modal verb to discuss the existence of something.

 

For everywhere we look, there is work to be done.

For everywhere we look, there is work to be done.

Caption 28, Barack Obama's Inauguration Day - Obama's Speech

 Play Caption

 

I think there must be something wrong with me, Linus.

I think there must be something wrong with me, Linus.

Caption 9, A Charlie Brown Christmas - Opening

 Play Caption

 

2) "Their" is a possessive adjective used before a noun when the subject is "they." With "their," we are speaking about something that belongs to two or more people.

 

What are their names? -Their names are Naya and Alex.

What are their names? -Their names are Naya and Alex.

Caption 14, Caralie and Annie - Get to Know Each Other

 Play Caption

 

Their goal is a plan to finally help humanity reduce its carbon footprint.

Their goal is a plan to finally help humanity reduce its carbon footprint.

Caption 3, Green TV - What Is COP21?

 Play Caption

 

3) "They’re" is a contraction of "they are" used to refer to two or more people in the third person. It is especially useful for shortening sentences in the present continuous tense.

 

I think they're nice.

I think they're nice.

Caption 12, Comic-Con 2015 - Jennifer Lawrence

 Play Caption

  

They're playing a game on the lawn.

They're playing a game on the lawn.

Caption 10, Jessica - in Prospect Park

 Play Caption

 

BANNER PLACEHOLDER

Further Learning
Check out the examples above on Yabla English to get a better sense of the full context for the use of "there," "their," and "they're." Try to write a few sentences in which you use two or even all three of these words to solidify your understanding. An example would be: "They're not sure when they will get there. It depends on when their plane lands."

Vocabulary

Irregular Verbs

Regular verbs in English consist of a base verb from which all different tenses can easily be formed. For example, the verb "to learn": present tense: learn; continuous present tense: learning, perfect tense and past tense: learned. As you see, all tenses of the regular verb "to learn" can be formed by adding the endings -ing and -ed.

BANNER PLACEHOLDER

English irregular verbs, however, have no definite rules, and although some irregular verbs have certain patterns in common, the best way to learn them is by looking at each individual verb. Let's look at the irregular verb "begin" in its simple present tense as an example.

 

Starting today, we must pick ourselves up, dust ourselves off, and begin again the work of remaking America.

Captions 26-27, Barack Obama's Inauguration Day Obama's Speech - Part 2

 Play Caption

 

As you see, in the simple present tense it remains the same. But in the present continuous tense:

 

It's beginning to turn into a lovely red color!

Caption 28, Tara's recipes - Chilli Prawns and Golden Couscous

 Play Caption

 

Just like a regular verb, this irregular verb adds -ing, but with an extra '"n": However, in the past tense:

 

She got a fright when the clock suddenly began to strike twelve.

Caption 15, Yabla Fairy Tales - Cinderella - Part 2

 Play Caption

 

The base verb "begin" changes to "began." And as a past participle:

 

Bottled water sales have begun to drop.

Caption 67, Nature Preservation - The Story of Bottled Water - Part 2

 Play Caption

 

The base verb "begin" changes to "begun."

BANNER PLACEHOLDER

 

Further Learning
Take a look at this list of English irregular verb forms, and search Yabla English for some of your favorite English irregular verbs to see them used in a real-world context.

Grammar

You May Also Like