An adjective is a "describing word" that describes or modifies a noun. Today we'll take a look at the most basic type of adjective, called an "attribute adjective," which in simple sentences in English usually precedes the noun.
It's quite a big video!
Caption 32, Adele: The Making of “Chasing Pavements”
In the sentence above, the adjective "big" describes the noun "video." If you have more than one adjective, however, it is important to understand they must be put into a particular order: an adjective describing size is mentioned first, then shape or quality, followed by age, color, origin, and, lastly, material. For example:
And mix it well into this beautiful red tomato onion paste.
Caption 34, Tara´s recipes: Chilli Prawns and Golden Couscous
In the sentence above, the adjective order is: beautiful (quality), red (color), and tomato onion (materials). The last two are actually nouns that are acting as adjectives. You can see how the order is important, because to say, "And mix it well with this tomato beautiful onion red paste" doesn't make sense!
A noun can be used as an adjective too, as in "a stone house", which describes "a house made of stone." But an adjective can become a noun too:
The ever widening gap between the rich and the poor is despicable.
Caption 6, Occupy DC: Barry Knight
The adjectives "rich" and "poor" become nouns when the article "the" precedes them.
Take a look at this list of the most commonly used 500 adjectives in the English language and pick a few out that you are less familiar with, then learn how they are used in context on Yabla.
English verbs that describe an action, rather than an occurrence or a state of being, are the most common kind of verbs. Unlike the other kinds of verbs, they have the common feature of always ending in the letter "s" in the present tense third-person singular form:
He takes a step.
Caption 5, David Gallo: Underwater astonishments
He eats the fruit.
Caption 17, Genesis Inc.: Talkalope
He (subject) takes (action verb) a step (object).
He (subject) eats (action verb) the fruit (object).
To change the above affirmative sentences to negative sentences, add the verb "to do" and "not," the declarative form of "no."
He does not take a step.
He does not eat the fruit.
To change the affirmative form to the interrogatory form (or question), add the verb "to do" at the beginning of the sentence with a question mark at the end:
Does he take a step?
Does he eat the fruit?
So to reiterate:
Affirmative: He takes a step.
Negative: He does not take a step.
Interrogatory: Does he take a step?
Affirmative: He eats the fruit.
Negative: He does not eat the fruit.
Interrogatory: Does he eat the fruit?
Browse some videos at Yabla English and find some other examples of affirmative sentences with action verbs. Practice turning them into negative sentences with "to do" and "not", and changing them into interrogative sentences with "to do" and a question mark.
The verb "to be" is, in its infinitive form, part of one of the most famous lines in world literature:
To be, or not to be, that is the question.
—from "Hamlet" by William Shakespeare
Most verbs describe action, but "to be" describes a state of being: how or what you are or how somebody is. The present tense conjugation of "to be" is: I am; he, she, or it is; you are; they are; and we are.
"To be" can describe your name and your profession:
My name is Jack Thomas. I am a finance student.
Caption 1, An American: in London
It can describe how you are feeling:
I've never been to New York before and I am so excited to go!
Caption 16, English with Lauren: Emotions
If the sentence is a negation, the word "not" appears after the verb:
I am not a lawyer.
Caption 15, English: common phrases
In the first person singular, "I am" is often contracted to "I'm"; "he is," "she is," or "it is" to "he's," "she's," or "it's"; "you are" to "you're"; "they are" to "they're" and "we are" to "we're":
Today we're at the top of the Empire State Building.
Caption 3, English for Beginners: Letters and Numbers
See how we're part of the global economy?
Caption 13, Dissolve inc.: Generic Brand Video
Browse some videos at Yabla English and find some other examples of the verb "to be" used in context in real conversations.
A personal pronoun is a word that substitutes for a noun representing people, animals or objects.
The first person singular pronoun "I" usually refers to yourself (or the speaker). In the plural form it is "we."
I really am passionate about this.
Caption 24, Business English: The job interview
Well, we are very excited to have you with us!
Caption 16, Business English: The job interview
The second person pronoun "you" can be singular or plural and usually refers to the person or persons you are addressing.
What will you have for lunch?
Caption 21, Caralie and Annie: Get to know each other
The third person pronoun refers to someone other than the person you are speaking to, and is "he" (male) or "she" (female) or "it" (object) in singular, "they" in plural:
She is elegant and we wish her luck this weekend.
Caption 32, Taylor Swift: Prom Party
They thought it was a hoax.
Caption 7, Soccer World Cup: Australia
Read the personal pronoun article in English and in your native language to help you understand the basics. Write a simple sentence in your native language for each of the personal pronouns, then translate them to English. Search for some personal pronouns on Yabla English and see some different examples of how they are used in context.
A countable noun is a common noun that has singular and plural forms and can be modified by a number. The opposite of a common noun is called a mass noun, which does not have different singular and plural forms, nor can it be modified by a number. As a general rule, words referring to objects and people are countable nouns, and words referring to liquids (water, juice), powders (sugar, sand), and substances (metal, wood) are mass nouns. When you travel you have two suitcases. Suitcases are the same as luggage, but you cannot say "two luggages" as luggage is a mass noun. When you travel you have luggage, or two pieces of luggage. Mass nouns use measure words like pieces of to make plurals. You want to build a bookshelf so you buy eight boards made of wood. "Wood" is a mass noun, so it is incorrect to say you have "eight woods," but you can say you have eight pieces of wood. Here is a list of some more mass nouns: advice, air, art, blood, butter, data, deodorant, equipment, evidence, food, furniture, garbage, graffiti, grass, homework, housework, information,, knowledge, mathematics, meat, milk, money, music, notation, paper, pollution, progress, sand, soap, software, sugar, traffic, transportation, travel, trash, water There are some words that are both countable nouns and mass nouns. You leave some papers on the desk, by which you mean you leave some specific documents. If you leave some paper on the desk, you mean you left a package of paper or just some paper in a general sense. Further Learning Search for some mass nouns on Yabla English and see how they are used in context.
A noun is a word for a person, place, or thing that can be the subject of a verb. One of the first things you learn in a new language are nouns. Different languages have different ways to make a singular noun plural.
In English, the most common way to make a noun plural is to add the letter s:
Nouns ending in tch, s (or ss), or x are often made plural with the letters es:
Some nouns ending in f replace the f with v, ending in ves:
Some nouns have irregular plurals:
Some nouns ending in y drop the y and are made plural with ies:
But if the y has another vowel before it, then usually the plural is made by adding s:
Nouns ending in o are irregular. Some end with s, some with es, and some work with both:
hero: heros or heroes
volcano: volcanos or volcanoes
Some nouns have the same singular and plural forms, and most of these are animals: moose, deer, fish, swine
This example from Yabla English has 5 different plural nouns, including two that are irregular:
We have brought a set of consulting tools that include analyses, evaluation criteria, business processes and governance recommendations.
Captions 9-11, Planview and Kalypso: Partner to Drive Innovation
Try to correctly change the four nouns to their singular form and check your work to see if you converted the two irregular nouns correctly.
For even more plurals, watch the Yabla English video "English with Lauren and Matt: Parts of the human body."