Even grammar can be "moody," but grammatical moods express the attitude of what a person is writing or saying. The three grammatical moods commonly used in English are the indicative, imperative, and subjunctive moods.
The indicative (or realis) mood is used to make a statement of fact:
You cannot outlast us and we will defeat you.
Caption 19, Barack Obama's Inauguration Day - Obama's SpeechPlay Caption
You will learn the true nature of the society we live in.Play Caption
The imperative mood is for commands or requests:
Step away from your vehicle and put your hands on your head.
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All emergency service cars, please come to Vesey and West [Streets]!
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The subjunctive mood is used to express a a wish, desire, or something that has not yet happened.
I'd like to have something interesting to do and I'd like to have nothing to do.
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I would like to explain how we talk about the time in English.
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In English grammar, the "voice" describes the relationship between the verb and its participants. If the subject of the sentence does the action, the verb is in the active voice. If the subject does not actively participate in the action described and the focus is on the action itself, not the subject, then the verb is in the passive voice.
It is important when you write in English that you distinguish between the active and passive voice. If you want the focus to be on the subject, or actor, use the active voice. If you wish the emphasis to be on the action itself, and not the actor, use the passive voice.
Here are two examples of the active voice from Yabla English:
He created the mythology.Play Caption
Now, we'll have a demonstration from some of your instructors.
Caption 15, Karate Kids, USA The Little Dragons - Part 16Play Caption
In the first example, the focus is on the subject "he" having created the mythology. It is usually easy to make a passive voice sentence out of the active by using the verb "to be" and the past participle of the original verb. In this case, we can write it in passive voice thus:
The mythology was created by him.
The mythology did not do the creating. The focus here is not the fact that he created it, but the fact that it was created.
In the second example, we can render it passive like this:
Now, there'll be a demonstration for us from some of your instructors.
"We" are no longer emphasized as the ones who will be the audience of the demonstration, but rather the fact of the demonstration is the most important thing.
Whenever you see what appears to be a verb in English ending in -ing, you have to be careful as to how you interpret the sentence, as it may wind up that this apparent verb is actually a noun or an adjective! In English, gerunds and present participles are formed by adding -ing to the infinitive form of the verb ("to surf" becomes "surfing"), or for verbs ending in -e, dropping the -e and adding -ing ("to love" becomes "loving"). A gerund is a verb that acts as a noun in sentence. A present participle is a verb that is used to make a verb phrase or an adjective.
Therefore an English verb ending in -ing can either be noun (gerund), an adjective (formed from a present participle), or a verb (a present participle). This all sounds a bit complicated, but if you look at some examples, it's pretty easy to tell the difference!
I've always loved surfing.
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What does he love? He loves surfing. In the above example, the subject of the sentence is "I," and the object of the sentence is "surfing." Since you can make a noun out of "the surfing" as used here, it is a gerund.
We watch a couple of surfing videos.
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What kind of videos is he watching? Surfing videos. Here it is clear that "surfing" is an adjective that is modifying the noun "videos."
The four of us have just been surfing different spots.
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What have they been doing? They have been surfing. In this last example, by pairing the verbs together, you get "have been surfing." This is the verb "to surf" in its form as present participle verb.
Write down some of your favorite verbs, add -ing to them, following the rules above, and search Yabla English to see them used in a real-world context as either a gerund, adjective, or present participle verb.
Regular verbs in English consist of a base verb from which all different tenses can easily be formed. For example, the verb "to learn": present tense: learn; continuous present tense: learning, perfect tense and past tense: learned. As you see, all tenses of the regular verb "to learn" can be formed by adding the endings -ing and -ed.
English irregular verbs, however, have no definite rules, and although some irregular verbs have certain patterns in common, the best way to learn them is by looking at each individual verb. Let's look at the irregular verb "begin" in its simple present tense as an example.
Starting today, we must pick ourselves up, dust ourselves off, and begin again the work of remaking America.
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As you see, in the simple present tense it remains the same. But in the present continuous tense:
It's beginning to turn into a lovely red color!Play Caption
Just like a regular verb, this irregular verb adds -ing, but with an extra '"n": However, in the past tense:
She got a fright when the clock suddenly began to strike twelve.
Caption 15, Yabla Fairy Tales - Cinderella - Part 2Play Caption
The base verb "begin" changes to "began." And as a past participle:
Bottled water sales have begun to drop.Play Caption
The base verb "begin" changes to "begun."
The continuous (or progressive) tense comprises two parts: the verb "to be" in the present, past, or future tense, combined with the present participle of the main verb. It is a common verbal form in the English language, actually more common than the simple tense in the spoken language.
Let's find an example on Yabla English of the present continuous tense:
Time is running out.
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To form the above present continuous tense, the present tense of the verb "to be" ("is") is combined with the present participle of the verb "to run" (by adding "ing," or in this case "-ning") to the end of the verb. The present continuous tense expresses something that is presently incomplete or unfinished. In the above case, there is still time enough now, but soon there will not be.
And the past continuous tense:
I was laughing so hard.
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To form the above past continuous tense, the past tense of the verb "to be" ("was") is combined with the present participle of the verb "to laugh." The past continuous tense expresses something that is incomplete or unfinished in the past. In the above case, laughing was occurring during a past event.
And lastly, the future continuous tense:
This is where you will be working from.
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To form the above future continuous tense, the future tense of the verb "to be" ("will be") is combined with the present participle of the verb "to work." The future continuous tense expresses something is incomplete or unfinished that will happen in the future. In the above case, work will be performed at some point in the future.
Take a look at this list of basic verb forms, and search Yabla English for some of your favorite English present participle verbs (ending in -ing) and see these tenses used in a real-world context.
The simple tense, in its present, past and future forms, is called "simple" because it consists of just one word, unlike other verb tenses such as present progressive and present perfect. The first-person form of the simple present tense is almost always the same as the dictionary form of the verb.
With the verb "to write," for example, the simple present tense in first person is "I write."
Well, when I write songs...
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In the simple past tense, the basic form "write" changes to "wrote." Some basic verbs just add "-ed" to become past tense, but many are irregular and must be learned.
I wrote this song.
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The simple future tense consist of adding "will" (or "shall") before the verb:
Tammy will write a song and then record it on her laptop.
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An adjective is a "describing word" that describes or modifies a noun. Today we'll take a look at the most basic type of adjective, called an "attribute adjective," which in simple sentences in English usually precedes the noun.
It's quite a big video!
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In the sentence above, the adjective "big" describes the noun "video." If you have more than one adjective, however, it is important to understand they must be put into a particular order: an adjective describing size is mentioned first, then shape or quality, followed by age, color, origin, and, lastly, material. For example:
And mix it well into this beautiful red tomato onion paste.Play Caption
In the sentence above, the adjective order is: beautiful (quality), red (color), and tomato onion (materials). The last two are actually nouns that are acting as adjectives. You can see how the order is important, because to say, "And mix it well with this tomato beautiful onion red paste" doesn't make sense!
A noun can be used as an adjective too, as in "a stone house", which describes "a house made of stone." But an adjective can become a noun too:
The ever widening gap between the rich and the poor is despicable.
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The adjectives "rich" and "poor" become nouns when the article "the" precedes them.
Take a look at this list of the most commonly used 500 adjectives in the English language and pick a few out that you are less familiar with, then learn how they are used in context on Yabla.
English verbs that describe an action, rather than an occurrence or a state of being, are the most common kind of verbs. Unlike the other kinds of verbs, they have the common feature of always ending in the letter "s" in the present tense third person singular form:
He takes a step back.
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He eats the fruit.
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He (subject) takes (action verb) a step (object).
He (subject) eats (action verb) the fruit (object).
To change the above affirmative sentences to negative sentences, add the verb "to do" and "not," the declarative form of "no."
He does not take a step.
He does not eat the fruit.
To change the affirmative form to the interrogatory form (or question), add the verb "to do" at the beginning of the sentence with a question mark at the end:
Does he take a step?
Does he eat the fruit?
So to reiterate:
Affirmative: He takes a step.
Negative: He does not take a step.
Interrogatory: Does he take a step?
Affirmative: He eats the fruit.
Negative: He does not eat the fruit.
Interrogatory: Does he eat the fruit?
Browse some videos at Yabla English and find some other examples of affirmative sentences with action verbs. Practice turning them into negative sentences with "to do" and "not", and changing them into interrogative sentences with "to do" and a question mark.
The verb "to be" is, in its infinitive form, part of one of the most famous lines in world literature:
To be, or not to be, that is the question.
—from "Hamlet" by William Shakespeare
Most verbs describe action, but "to be" describes a state of being: how or what you are or how somebody is. The present tense conjugation of "to be" is: I am; he, she, or it is; you are; they are; and we are.
"To be" can describe your name and your profession:
My name is Jack Thomas. I am a finance student here.
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It can describe how you are feeling:
I've never been to New York before, and I am so excited to go!
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If the sentence is a negation, the word "not" appears after the verb:
I am not a lawyer.
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In the first person singular, "I am" is often contracted to "I'm"; "he is," "she is," or "it is" to "he's," "she's," or "it's"; "you are" to "you're"; "they are" to "they're" and "we are" to "we're":
Today we're at the top of the Empire State Building.
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See how we're part of the global economy?
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Browse some videos at Yabla English and find some other examples of the verb "to be" used in context in real conversations.
The first person singular pronoun "I" usually refers to yourself (or the speaker). In the plural form it is "we."
I really am passionate about this.
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Well, we are very excited to have you with us!
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The second person pronoun "you" can be singular or plural and usually refers to the person or persons you are addressing.
What will you have for lunch?
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The third person pronoun refers to someone other than the person you are speaking to, and is "he" (male) or "she" (female) or "it" (object) in singular, "they" in plural:
She is elegant and we wish her luck this weekend.
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They thought it was a hoax.
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Read the personal pronoun article in English and in your native language to help you understand the basics. Write a simple sentence in your native language for each of the personal pronouns, then translate them to English. Search for some personal pronouns on Yabla English and see some different examples of how they are used in context.
A countable noun is a common noun that has singular and plural forms and can be modified by a number.
The opposite of a common noun is called a mass noun, which does not have different singular and plural forms, nor can it be modified by a number.
As a general rule, words referring to objects and people are countable nouns, and words referring to liquids (water, juice), powders (sugar, sand), and substances (metal, wood) are mass nouns.
When you travel you have two suitcases. Suitcases are the same as luggage, but you cannot say "two luggages" as luggage is a mass noun. When you travel you have luggage, or two pieces of luggage. Mass nouns use measure words like pieces of to make plurals.
You want to build a bookshelf so you buy eight boards made of wood. "Wood" is a mass noun, so it is incorrect to say you have "eight woods," but you can say you have eight pieces of wood.
Here is a list of some more mass nouns: advice, air, art, blood, butter, data, deodorant, equipment, evidence, food, furniture, garbage, graffiti, grass, homework, housework, information, knowledge, mathematics, meat, milk, money, music, notation, paper, pollution, progress, sand, soap, software, sugar, traffic, transportation, travel, trash, water
There are some words that are both countable nouns and mass nouns. You leave some papers on the desk, by which you mean you leave some specific documents. If you leave some paper on the desk, you mean you left a package of paper or just some paper in a general sense.
Search for some mass nouns on Yabla English and see how they are used in context.
A noun is a word for a person, place, or thing that can be the subject of a verb. One of the first things you learn in a new language are nouns. Different languages have different ways to make a singular noun plural.
In English, the most common way to make a noun plural is to add the letter s:
Nouns ending in tch, s (or ss), or x are often made plural with the letters es:
Some nouns ending in f replace the f with v, ending in ves:
Some nouns have irregular plurals:
Some nouns ending in y drop the y and are made plural with ies:
But if the y has another vowel before it, then usually the plural is made by adding s:
Nouns ending in o are irregular. Some end with s, some with es, and some work with both:
hero: heros or heroes
volcano: volcanos or volcanoes
Some nouns have the same singular and plural forms, and most of these are animals: moose, deer, fish, swine
This example from Yabla English has 5 different plural nouns, including two that are irregular:
We have brought a set of consulting tools that include analyses, evaluation criteria, business processes and governance recommendations.
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Try to correctly change the four nouns to their singular form and check your work to see if you converted the two irregular nouns correctly.
For even more plurals, watch the Yabla English video "English with Lauren and Matt: Parts of the human body."